The Brain

Macroscopic anatomy of the brain are as follows:

Coronal Section

A coronal section of brain reveals structures such as the thalamus, the basal ganglia and the internal capsule.

The thalamus has many functions including acting as a relay for sensory pain integration

The major role of the basal ganglia is coordination of movement.

The internal capsule is the conduit for motor fibres. When disrupted by a middle cerebral artery stroke the result is a contralateral hemiparesis.

CerebroSpinal Fluid (CSF)

Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) is a clear colourless fluid contained in the subarachnoid space and ventricular system of the brain and spinal cord. It cushions the brain and spinal cord, protecting them from trauma. In addition it is an important component of the blood brain barrier which controls the brain’s internal environment. It also has nutritional and immunological (protection against infection, disease, etc.) functions.

CSF is produced and reabsorbed at 450 ml/24 h. The volume of CSF within the brain and spinal cord is 150 ml-75 ml in the brain, 75 ml in the spinal cord

CSF is secreted by the choroid plexuses in ventricles and also by the ependymal lining of the ventricles of the brain; it is absorbed by the subarachnoid granulations. 

The flow of CSF is as follows:-

From the lateral ventrical through the foramen of Monro into third ventricle

From the third ventricle via the aqueduct of Sylvius into the fourth ventricle

From the fourth ventricle through the posterior foramen of Magendie and the lateral foramina of Luschka into the cisterna magna

CSF then circulates around the spinal cord and the subarachnoid space and is reabsorbed through the arachnoid granulations into the cerebral venous system

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